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This study gives an insight into the role of the inhibitory

Here we show the existence of Paper Converting Knives signal to regulate stem cell formation in the moss Physcomitrella patens. When single cells were isolated from a gametophore leaf, over 90% of them were reprogrammed to stem cells with characteristic nuclear expansion. By contrast, when two adjacent cells were isolated, the nuclei of both cells expanded, but successful reprogramming of both cells occurred only in approximately one fifth of the pairs.

When three aligned cells were isolated, the reprogramming rate of both edge cells decreased with a living middle cell but did not with a dead middle cell. Furthermore, unequal conversion into stem cells was more prominent in cell pairs aligned parallel to the proximal-distal leaf axis than in those perpendicular to the axis.

This study gives an insight into the role of the inhibitory signal in development and evolution as well as the efficient stem cell induction from differentiated cells.During development, both plants and animals form stem cells, which can self-renew and produce differentiated cells to generate the body1, 2. Under certain conditions, differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to regenerate stem cells3, 4, which has a significant role in development and reproduction with regard to conferring totipotency and pluripotency.

While the regulatory mechanisms of intercellular interactions during reprogramming in a cell population remain largely unknown in seed plants, the physiological aspects of this process have been relatively well studied in fern prothalli, the gametophytic life stage of ferns5, 6. Ferns usually have only a single stem cell in the meristem, as opposed to the multiple stem cells found in the meristem of seed plants.